Selasa, 06 Desember 2011

Speed of Sound Waves

17.4 The Doppler Effect
Perhaps you have noticed how the sound of a vehicle’s horn changes as the vehicle moves past you. The frequency of the sound you hear as the vehicle approaches you is higher than the frequency you hear as it moves away from you. This is one example of the Doppler effect.
If a point source emits sound waves and the medium is uniform, the waves move at the same speed in all directions radially away from the source; this is a spherical wave,
Because

we can express f’                                                                                              ( relationships are  generally

(observer approaches the source of the sound )

If the observer is moving away from the source

( observer away the source of the sound )

( source approache to the observer )

(source away to the observer )

Quick Quiz 17.7 Consider detectors of water waves at three locations A, B, and C in Figure 17.9b. Which of the following statements is true? (a) The wave speed is highest at location A. (b) The wave speed is highest at location C. (c) The detected wavelength is largest at location B. (c) The detected wavelength is largest at location C. (e) The detected frequency is highest at location C. (f) The detected frequency is highest at location A.

(e) source of moving does not change the speed of the wave, so that (a) and (b) is not true. largest wavelength detected at A, so (c) and (d) is incorrect. option (f) is not true because in the lowest frequency A
Quick Quiz 17.8 You stand on a platform at a train station and listen to a train approaching the station at a constant velocity. While the train approaches, but before it arrives, you hear (a) the intensity and the frequency of the sound both increasing (b) the intensity and the frequency of the sound both decreasing (c) the intensity increasing and the frequency decreasing (d) the intensity decreasing and the frequency increasing (e) the intensity increasing and the frequency remaining the same (f) the intensity decreasing and the frequency remaining the same.
(e) the intensity of sound increases as the train moving toward you. therefore fixed speed of the train, then change the frequency of its fixed doppler effect.
17.5 Digital Sound Recording

The first sound recording device, the phonograph, was invented by Thomas Edison in the nineteenth century. Sound waves were recorded in early phonographs by encoding the sound waveforms as variations in the depth of a continuous groove cut in tin foil wrapped around a cylinder. During playback, as a needle followed along the groove of the rotating cylinder, the needle was pushed back and forth according to the sound waves encoded on the record. The needle was attached to a diaphragm and a horn (Fig. 17.12), which made the sound loud enough to be heard.
As the development of the phonograph continued, sound was recorded on cardboard cylinders coated with wax. During the last decade of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, sound was recorded on disks made of shellac andclay. In 1948, the plastic phonograph disk was introduced and dominated the recording industry market until the advent of compact discs in the 1980s.
Digital Recording
In digital recording, information is converted to binary code (ones and zeroes), similar to the dots and dashes of Morse code. First, the waveform of the sound is sampled, typically at the rate of 44 100 times per second. Figure 17.13 illustrates this process. The sampling frequency is much higher than the upper range of hearing, about 20 000 Hz, so all frequencies of sound are sampled at this rate. During each sampling, the pressure of the wave is measured and converted to a voltage. Thus, there are 44 100 numbers associated with each second of the sound being sampled.
These measurements are then converted to binary numbers, which are numbers expressed using base 2 rather than base 10.  Generally, voltage measurements are recorded in 16-bit “words,” where each bit is a one or a zero. Thus, the number of different voltage levels that can be assigned codes is 216 =65 536. The number of bits in one second of sound is 16 x 44 100 =705 600. It is these strings of ones and zeroes, in 16-bit words, that are recorded on the surface of a compact disc.

Figure 17.14 shows a magnification of the surface of a compact disc. There are two types of areas that are detected by the laser playback system—lands and pits. The lands are untouched regions of the disc surface that are highly reflective. The pits, which are areas burned into the surface, scatter light rather than reflecting it back to the detection system. The playback system samples the reflected light 705 600 times per second. When the laser moves from a pit to a flat or from a flat to a pit, the reflected light changes during the sampling and the bit is recorded as a one. If there is no change during the sampling, the bit is recorded as a zero. The advantage of digital recording is in the high fidelity of the sound. Another advantage of digital recording is that the information is extracted optically, so that there is no mechanical wear on the disc.
17.6 Motion Picture Sound
Another interesting application of digital sound is the soundtrack in a motion picture. Early twentieth-century movies recorded sound on phonograph records, which were synchronized with the action on the screen. Beginning with early newsreel films, the variable-area optical soundtrack process was introduced, in which sound was recorded on an optical track on the film. The width of the transparent portion of the track varied according to the sound wave that was recorded. A photocell detecting light passing through the track converted the varying light intensity to a sound wave. As with phonograph recording, there are a number of difficulties with this recording system. For example, dirt or fingerprints on the film cause fluctuations in intensity and loss of fidelity.
Digital recording on film first appeared with Dick Tracy (1990), using the Cinema Digital Sound (CDS) system. This system suffered from lack of an analog backup system in case of equipment failure and is no longer used in the film industry. It did, however, introduce the use of 5.1 channels of sound—Left, Center, Right, Right Surround, Left Surround, and Low Frequency Effects (LFE). The LFE channel, which is the “0.1 channel” of 5.1, carries very low frequencies for dramatic sound from explosions,earthquakes, and the like.
Current motion pictures are produced with three systems of digital sound recording:
1.  Dolby Digital; In this format, 5.1 channels of digital sound are optically stored between the sprocket holes of the film. There is an analog optical backup in case the digital system fails. The first film to use this technique was Batman Returns (1992).
2.   DTS (Digital Theater Sound); 5.1 channels of sound are stored on a separate CDROM which is synchronized to the film print by time codes on the film. There is an analog optical backup in case the digital system fails. The first film to use this technique was Jurassic Park (1993).
3.    SDDS (Sony Dynamic Digital Sound); Eight full channels of digital sound are optically stored outside the sprocket holes on both sides of film. There is an analog optical backup in case the digital system fails. The first film to use this technique was Last Action Hero (1993). The existence of information on both sides of the tape is a system of redundancy—in case one side is damaged, the system will still operate. SDDS employs a full-spectrum LFE channel and two additional channels (left center and right center behind the screen). In Figure 17.16, showing a section of SDDS film, both the analog optical soundtrack and the dual digital soundtracks can be seen.